Vitamin D and vitamin K have diverse and complementary physiological functions, close associations with age-related and chronic diseases, and a strong body of clinical evidence documenting widespread insufficiency and therapeutic potential.1,2 Vitamin D has both hormonal and non-hormonal functions, with vitamin D receptors translating into a myriad of physiological actions, ranging from bone metabolism to modulation of immune activity.3,4
Vitamin D regulates the expression of hundreds of genes, influences cellular proliferation and signalling, insulin production and sensitivity, and is a critical inhibitor of several inflammatory pathways.5,6 Insufficiency has been linked to increases in cardiovascular disease, cancer risk, diabetes and metabolic syndrome, as well as overall mortality.7,8,9,10,11
Vitamin K-dependent (VKD) proteins also have a nearly ubiquitous presence and regulate diverse functions including cellular growth, arterial calcification and bone metabolism.12 Clinically, low intakes are associated with increased risk for cardiovascular disease, diabetes, cancer, fracture and all-cause mortality.13,14,15,16 Vitamins K and D have complementary physiological functions, and clinical trials have shown synergistic benefit for both osteoporosis and cardiovascular disease when used together
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