Indole-3-carbinol (I3C) is a phytochemical derived in high concentrations from the Brassica family of vegetables, including broccoli, cauliflower, Brussels sprouts, and cabbage. I3C and its derivative compounds have been shown to exert immunomodulatory effects in the human body. I3C has been shown to exhibit direct antiestrogenic activity via competitive inhibition of estrogen receptors, upregulate the cytochrome P450 isoenzymes CYP1A1, CYP1A2, and CYP1B1, thereby increasing estrogen metabolism, and shift estrogen metabolism away from the more proliferative (16‑OHE1) towards the more protective (2‑OHE1) estrogen species.
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